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Here is the information about Biography of James Chadwick with HD Photos Downloads. James Chadwick (1891-1974). The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935 was awarded to James Chadwick for the discovery of the neutron.

Here is the information about Biography of James Chadwick with HD Photos Downloads. James Chadwick (1891-1974). The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935 was awarded to James Chadwick "for the discovery of the neutron."

Biography of James Chadwick
James Chadwick

Sir James Chadwick, CH, FRS (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. In 1941, he wrote the final draft of the MAUD Report, which inspired the U.S. government to begin serious atom bomb research efforts. He was the head of the British team that worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II. He was knighted in Britain in 1945 for his achievements in physics.

Chadwick graduated from the Victoria University of Manchester in 1911, where he studied under Ernest Rutherford (known as the "father of nuclear physics"). At Manchester, he continued to study under Rutherford until he was awarded his MSc in 1913. The same year, Chadwick was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. He elected to study beta radiation under Hans Geiger in Berlin. Using Geiger's recently developed Geiger counter, Chadwick was able to demonstrate that beta radiation produced a continuous spectrum, and not discrete lines as had been thought. Still in Germany when World War I broke out in Europe, he spent the next four years in the Ruhleben internment camp.

After the war, Chadwick followed Rutherford to the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, where Chadwick earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree under Rutherford's supervision from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, in June 1921. He was Rutherford's assistant director of research at the Cavendish Laboratory for over a decade at a time when it was one of the world's foremost centres for the study of physics, attracting students like John Cockcroft, Norman Feather, and Mark Oliphant. Chadwick followed his discovery of the neutron by measuring its mass. He anticipated that neutrons would become a major weapon in the fight against cancer. Chadwick left the Cavendish Laboratory in 1935 to become a professor of physics at the University of Liverpool, where he overhauled an antiquated laboratory and, by installing a cyclotron, made it an important centre for the study of nuclear physics.

During the Second World War, Chadwick carried out research as part of the Tube Alloys project to build an atom bomb, while his Manchester lab and environs were harassed by Luftwaffe bombing. When the Quebec Agreement merged his project with the American Manhattan Project, he became part of the British Mission, and worked at the Los Alamos Laboratory and in Washington, D.C. He surprised everyone by earning the almost-complete trust of project director Leslie R. Groves, Jr. For his efforts, Chadwick received a knighthood in the New Year Honours on 1 January 1945. In July 1945, he viewed the Trinity nuclear test. After this, he served as the British scientific advisor to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. Uncomfortable with the trend toward Big Science, Chadwick became the Master of Gonville and Caius College in 1948. He retired in 1959.

James Chadwick

James Chadwick (Cheshire, 20 de outubro de 1891 — Cambridge, 24 de julho de 1974) foi um físico britânico, colaborador de Ernest Rutherford. Seu principal contributo para a ciência foi a prova da existência do nêutron. Por esta descoberta, foi-lhe atribuído o Nobel de Física em 1935.

Chadwick tornou-se professor de física na Universidade de Liverpool em 1935 e, durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, integrou o Projeto Manhattan nos Estados Unidos, desenvolvendo as bombas atômicas lançadas sobre Hiroshima e Nagasaki.

Ingressou na Victoria University of Manchester em 1908 para estudar física, colaborando com Ernest Rutherford no estudo da emissão de raios gama. Em 1913, foi para a Universidade Técnica de Berlim, onde trabalhou com o físico alemão Hans Geiger, inventor do contador de radiação com o mesmo nome. Após a guerra, regressou ao Reino Unido e tornou-se professor do Gonville and Caius College, onde retomou as suas investigações no campo da radioactividade. No Laboratório Cavendish, em Cambridge, colaborou com Rutherford (que tinha observado experimentalmente a primeira reacção nuclear em 1919) e com ele produziu a desintegração artificial de diversos elementos, utilizando o bombardeamento com partículas alfa.

A principal contribuição de James Chadwick para o desenvolvimento da física ocorreu em 1932, data em que descobriu a partícula do núcleo atómico, que passou a ser conhecida por nêutron, devido ao facto de não ter carga elétrica. Pela sua descoberta, divulgada à comunidade científica na obra Possible Existence of Neutron, obteve em 1935 o Nobel de Física.

Foi também professor de física em Liverpool (1935-1948) e diretor do Gonville and Caius College (1948-1958), na Segunda Guerra Mundial esteve ligado ao projecto da bomba atómica, tendo sido conselheiro científico de Robert Oppenheimer, o diretor do Projeto Manhattan (projeto que levou à construção da bomba atómica) no Laboratório Nacional de Los Alamos, Estados Unidos.

As suas descobertas foram aceitas unanimemente na comunidade física da época e garantiram-lhe a atribuição de diversos prémios, honras e condecorações, entre os quais o Nobel de Física em 1935. Foi membro da Royal Society, Académie Royale de Belgique, Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Academia Real das Artes e Ciências dos Países Baixos, Academia de Ciências da Saxônia, Pontifícia Academia das Ciências, do Instituto Franklin; da American Philosophical Society e da American Physical Society. Como reconhecimento da importância dos seus trabalhos, foi-lhe atribuído o grau de Doutor Honoris Causa nas Universidades de Dublin, Leeds, Oxford, Birmingham, Montreal (McGill), Liverpool e Edinburgo.

What is Biography of James Chadwick?

A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae (résumé), a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting various aspects of their life, including intimate details of experience, and may include an analysis of the subject's personality.

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An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person themselves, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter.

Here is the information about Biography of James Chadwick with HD Photos Downloads. James Chadwick (1891-1974). The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935 was awarded to James Chadwick for the discovery of the neutron. James Chadwick

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